Climate Change Project

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Climate Change and Coastal Adaptation Project

Blog: Louisiana Coastal Restoration: Separating Fact from Fiction

Also see: Hurricane Katrina Materials; Levee Law; Environmental Law Cases; The Geology and Hydrology of the Mississippi Delta

Climate Change Teaching Resources

These are some of the documents referenced on the blogs:

ST. BERNARD PARISH COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. Prepared by Coastal Environments, Inc. 1260 Main Street Baton Rouge, LA 70802. Prepared for St. Bernard Parish Government St. Bernard Parish Government Building 8201 W. Judge Perez Drive Chalmette, LA 70043 (2012)

Farris, G.S., Smith, G.J., Crane, M.P., Demas, C.R., Robbins, L.L., and Lavoie, D.L., eds., 2007, Science and the storms—the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1306, 283 p.

2017 - Louisiana’s Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast

A visualization of century-scale impacts of subsidence and sea level rise as seen in a time sequence reconstruction at Fort Proctor in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana by Chris McLindon.

A Comprehensive Restoration Plan for the Gulf of Mexico

Chris McLindon, Causes of Accelerated Wetlands Loss in the Late 20Th Century – Southeast Louisiana (2016).

Chris McLindon, Using Oil and Gas Industry Data to Achieve Coastal Sustainability

Kelly Haggar, Legal Aspects of Coastal Change (2016)

Sample Flood pre-digital Maps: Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Venice

The Baylands and Climate Change: What we can do. Baylands Ecosystem Habitat Goals Science Update 2015 - Coastal Restoration of San Francisco Bay

URS. The Direct Impact of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet on Hurricane Storm Surge. Performed under: CONTRACT NO. 2503-05-39, Hydrodynamic Modeling Effort for MRGO Study, Prepared for: State of Louisiana, Department of Natural Resources (February 2006)

Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Plans

Charles L Bretschneider & J Ian Collins, Storm Surge Effects of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet: Study A (National Engineering Science Company) (1966) - showing that the MRGO did not increase flooding with Hurricane Betsy.

Fitzpatrick, P. J., Y. Lau, C. M. Hill, T. V. Wamsley, B. Jelley, and E. Valenti, 2010. Myths about the cause of Hurricane Katrina.s storm surge. 29th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, May 10-14, Tuscon, AZ.

Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) Lock Replacement - mirror page for archive

Albert E Cowdrey, Land’s End, a History of the New Orleans District US Army Corps of Engineers, and Its Lifelong Battle With the Lower Mississippi and Other Rivers Wending Their Way To the Sea. US Army Corps of Engineers. (1977)

LM Alperin, History of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. US Army Corps of Engineers, Study NWS-83-9 (1983)

Gilbert F White, Human adjustment to floods: a geographical approach to the flood problem in the United States (1945).

Thomas L. Holzer, Living with Unstable Ground (2009).

D. R. Jones S. E. Ingebritsen D.L. Galloway, Land Subsidence in the United States (2000).

Devin Galloway, David R Jones & Steven E Ingebritsen, Land subsidence in the United States (1999).

Robert A Morton, An overview of coastal land loss with emphasis on the southeastern United States (2003).

Robert A Morton, Noreen A Buster & M Dennis Krohn, Subsurface controls on historical subsidence rates and associated wetland loss in southcentral Louisiana, Transactions-Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 767–778 (2002).

Stern Review on Climate Change

Powerpoint - Barras, John A, Julie C Bernier, and Robert A Morton. Land Area Change in Coastal Louisiana: A Multidecadal Perspective (from 1956 to 2006), 2008.

Criminal Prosecutions after Disasters

Delta and Climate Cycles (slides) - Podcast Video (280mg)

State of Louisiana—Highlighting Low-Lying Areas Derived from USGS Digital Elevation Data

Old River Control Complex on the Mississippi River

Ashley N. Cox Jasen L. Brown Robert D. Davinroy Jason Floyd Emily Rivera Ivan H. Nguyen, Mississippi River and Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation And Hydraulic Sediment Response Model Study, (2011).

FEMA Flood Map Presentation for New Orleans - 2006

Recommended Residential Construction for Coastal Areas Building on Strong and Safe Foundations, FEMA P-550, Second Edition/December 2009

.Chris McLindon and Edward Richards - Board of Commissioners of SLFPA-E vs. Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co., et.al. - Legal and Geological Evaluation

Chris McLindon - Rethinking Coastal Restoration: The Delta Cycle and Land Area Change in the Louisiana Coastal Plain

Chris McLindon - Rethinking Coastal Restoration: Mechanisms of Subsidence in the Louisiana Coastal Plain

Chris McLindon, The Delta Cycle

*Jacobsen B. Hurricane Surge Hazard Analysis:  The State of the Practice and  Recent Applications for Southeast Louisiana (2013) - an excellent review of hurricane surge issues and risks for Louisiana.

Blunden, J., and D. S. Arndt, Eds., 2013: State of the Climate in 2012. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94 (8), S1–S238.

The National Global Change Research Plan 2012-2021, NRC 2012.

Field, Christopher B, Vicente Barros, Thomas F Stocker, and Qin Dahe, Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press 2012).

A Stronger, More Resilient New York - blog

The Use of Mississippi River Sediment for Restoration Projects in Louisiana - Russ J. Joffrion, PE, Engineer Manager, Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority Engineering Division

Implications of Sea Level Rise: Case Study on the East Land Bridge Dennis Lambert, PE, Area Manager, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. and Dale Berner, PE, PhD, President, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc.

Boesch, D. F., D. Levin, D. Nummedal, and K. Bowles. 1983. Subsidence in coastal Louisiana: causes, rates, and effects on wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, Washington, DC. FWS/OBS-83/26. 30 pp.

West Point a la Hache Freshwater Diversion

* Public notice for Kenner's permit to dump sewage into the LaBanche wetlands.

* Michael S. Kearney, J. C. Riter & R. Eugene Turner, Freshwater river diversions for marsh restoration in Louisiana: Twenty-six years of changing vegetative cover and marsh area, 38 Geophysical Research Letters (2011)

* RE Turner, On the cusp of restoration: science and society, Restoration ecology (2005)

*A Portfolio of Early Restoration Projects, addressed to the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustees, July 9, 2012.

*Louisiana Hurricane History, David Roth, National Weather Service

* U. S. Army Corp of Engineers. History of Hurricane Occurrences Along Coastal Louisiana. Department of the Army: New Orleans, 1972

Dijkman, J. (2007). A Dutch perspective on coastal Louisiana flood risk reduction and landscape stabilization. London, England.

Mississippi River Water Quality and the Clean Water Act: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities, National Research Council (2008)

Missouri River: Recognizing and Incorporating Sediment Management, National Academy Press 2011

Study of the Economic Effects of Charging Actuarially Based Premium Rates for Pre-FIRM Structures. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (May 14, 1999)

*Roy K. Dokka, The Anatomy of a Silent Disaster: Ongoing Subsidence and Inundation of the Northern Margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin An Interview with Dr. Roy Dokka. Houston Geological Society Bulletin, Feb. 2005.

*John R. Suter, The Role of the Mississippi in Deltaic Research: Contributions of James M. Coleman, Harry H. Roberts, and P. Shea Penland. Search and Discovery Article #40598 (2010) Posted September 30, 2010.

*Roy K. Dokka, Subsidence of South Louisiana: Measurement, Causes, and Human Implications. Luncheon Presentation, New Orleans Geological Society, Oct. 9th, 2006.

*Roy K. Dokka, Louisiana's Coast is on life-support. Can the Coast be Saved? An August 26th, 2010 Presentation to the LSU Law School (PowerPoint)

*Roy K. Dokka, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi. 116 Journal of Geophysical Research B06403, 1 (2011).

*Kurt D. Shinkle and Roy K. Dokka, Rates Of Vertical Displacement at Benchmarks in the Lower Mississippi Valley and the Northern Gulf Coast. NOAA TECHNICAL REPORT NOS/NGS 50. July, 2004

Rayner, S., Redgwell, C., Savulescu, J., Pidgeon, N. & Kruger, T. in The Regulation of Geoengineering: Fifth Report of the Session 2009–10 HC 221 (House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, 2010)

Jamie R.; Brown, Daniel P (December 20, 2005; updated August 10, 2006). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: 23–30 August 2005" (PDF). Original link.

S. Jeffress Williams, Shea Penland, Asbury H. Sallenger, Donald W. Davis, Louisiana Barrier Island Erosion Study : Atlas of Shoreline Changes in Louisiana From 1853 to 1989 (U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-2150-A) 1992

Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force, Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary) 2011.

David D. Zhang, Harry F. Lee, Cong Wang, Baosheng Li, Qing Pei, Jane Zhang, and Yulun An The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis PNAS 2011

Ruhl, J. B., Climate Change Adaptation and the Structural Transformation of Environmental Law (November 30, 2009). Environmental Law, Vol. 40, p. 343, 2010.

State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast - with supplement

Florida's Financial Exposure from Its "Self-Insurance" Programs, April 2010

Society of Jesus, HEALING A BROKEN WORLD: Task Force on Ecology (2011)

Climate Change: Adapt or Bust, Lloyd's 360 Risk Project, 2006

The National Plan for Emergency Preparedness - 1964

NOAA - State of the Climate 2010 (blog)

FEMA: Action Needed to Improve Administration of the National Flood Insurance Program GAO-11-297 June 9, 2011.

Saucier, R. T., 1994, Geomorphology and Quaternary Geologic History of the Lower Mississippi Valley: U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Fisk, Harold Norman. Geological investigation of the Atchafalaya Basin and the problem of Mississippi River diversion. Waterways Experiment Station, 1952.

Fisk, H.N., 1944, Geological investigation of the alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River: U.S. Department of the Army, Mississippi River Commission, 78p.

Map of 1927 Mississippi Flood - PDF

NAS Climate Change Project - original link

America's Climate Choices

Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change

Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change

Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change

Climate and Social Stress: Implications for Security Analysis (2012)

Worst Case - Flood of 2011 on the Lower Mississippi - Revised map - (11 May 2011) - Revised Current Flows - (16 May 2011) - Updated (post-Morganza) flood crest map

Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems: Summary of a Workshop Committee for the Workshop on Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems; National Research Council, NAP (2011)

The Mississippi River & Tributaries Project:Controlling the Flow - a description of the operation of the lower Mississippi flood control plan. (accessed May 8, 2011)

Christopher M. Swarzenski, Surface-Water Hydrology of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in South-Central Louisiana, 1996-1999, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1672.

Estimated Inundation Spring 2011 Flood Date: 06 May 2011 - Version 1, 06 May 2011 (EGIS Map ID No. 11-051-009)

New York State Sea Level Rise Task Force, Report to the Legislature, December 2010.

ASCE, The New Orleans Hurricane Protection System: What Went Wrong and Why (A Report by ASCE Hurricane Katrina External Review Panel), Reston, VA: ASCE (2007)

2009 - Against the Deluge: Storm Surge Barriers to Protect New York City

FEMA, Projected Impact of Relative Sea Level Rise on the National Flood Insurance Program, October 1991.


Japan Earthquake & Tsunami and What They Mean for the U.S.

Tropical Storm Allison Heavy Rains and Floods Texas and Louisiana June 2001

The World Bank, Natural Hazards, UnNatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention, The World Bank (publisher) 2010.

Citizens Info:

Assumed Policies
Assessment Overview
Regular Assessments
Storm Chart

POST-DISASTER REDEVELOPMENT PLANNING - A Guide for Florida Communities. 2010 (original link)

Robert E. Deyle, Katherine C. Bailey, and Anthony Matheny. Adaptive Response Planning to Sea Level Rise in Florida and Implications for Comprehensive and Public-Facilities Planning. September 1, 2007.

Thomas K. Ruppert, Eroding Long-Term Prospects for Florida’s Beaches: Florida’s Coastal Management Policy. August 19, 2008. Research for this white paper was funded by a grant awarded from the Sea Turtle Grants Program. The Sea Turtle Grants Program is funded from proceeds from the sale of the Florida Sea Turtle License Plate. Learn more at www.helpingseaturtles.org.

Michael Cragg, J. David Cummins, and Bin Zhou. The Impact on the U.S. Insurance Market of H.R. 3424 on Offshore Affiliate Reinsurance: An Updated Economic Analysis. July 8, 2010. Good discussion of state wind pools.

Christopher M. Swarzenski, Thomas W. Doyle, Brian Fry, and Thomas G. Hargis. Biogeochemical response of organic-rich freshwater marshes in the Louisiana delta plain to chronic river water influx. Biogeochemistry (2008) 90:49–63.

National Commission on Children and Disasters. 2010 Report to the President and Congress. AHRQ Publication No. 10-M037. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2010.

R. Eugene Turner, Doubt and the Values of an Ignorance-Based World View for Restoration: Coastal Louisiana Wetlands. Estuaries and Coasts (2009) 32:1054–1068.

Natural Hazards and Sustainability for Residential Buildings, FEMA P-798 / September 2010

Insurance Risks and Climate Change - Swiss Re. 2010.

FEMA, Actuarial Rate Review - National Flood Insurance Program, 2010.

Environmental groups weigh in on NFIP.

Keith Bea, Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding, CRS-RL33053, March 16, 2010 (August 29, 2005 version) (2011 version)

Testimony of David R. Conrad Senior Water Resources Specialist National Wildlife Federation Regarding Legislative Proposals to Reform the National Flood Insurance Program Before the Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity House Committee on Financial Services U.S. House of Representatives April 21, 2010.

Ernest B. Abbott, Floods, Flood Insurance, Litigation, Politics – and Catastrophe:
The National Flood Insurance Program, Sea Grant Law and Policy Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1 (June, 2008) 129-155.

Global warming slides

Robert Meltz, Federal Civil and Criminal Penalties Possibly Applicable to Parties Responsible for the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, CRS Report - August 16, 2010

Oliver Houck, Can We Save New Orleans? 19 TUL. ENVTL. L.J. 1-68 (2006)

Defining Louisiana’s Coastal Zone: A Science Based Evaluation of the Louisiana Coastal Zone Inland Boundary - August 2010 - Appendices A-D - Presentation: Defining Louisiana’s Coastal Zone

Caribbean Economics of Climate Adaptation Study - 2010

CARRI report (Colten, Kates, and Laska 2008)

Climate Change: A New Threat to National Security - Frankie Sturm, Truman National Security Project 10 September 2009

National Security and the Threat of Climate Change, CNA, April 2007

NOAA State of the Climate 2009 - government master site The key finding of this report is that 2009 continues the warming trend, and that most of the additional heat is in the oceans. Greenland and Antarctica ice continues to recede.

Summary of the Report

Chapter Two - How do we know it is getting warmer? (low-rez)

Full Report (low-rez)

Maurice Wolcott, Storm Surge: Myths, Misconceptions, and Facts, LA Department of Natural Resources, Local Coastal Programs Quarterly Meeting, Baton Rouge, LA October 7, 2009 - excellent presentation on the real risks of living on the South LA coast. (200meg PPT) (pdf)

Southern Louisiana: Does the US Accept Global Warming? 2010 National Association of Environmental Law Societies, Loyola University Law School, New Orleans, March 2010.

Levee Law

Hurricane Katrina



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