Law Enforcement Exception
After the United States Supreme Court created a right to sue for constitutional violations - such as intentional torts - in the Bivens case, Congress amended the FTCA to allow claims for assault, battery, false imprisonment, false arrest, abuse of process, or malicious prosecution against an "investigative or law enforcement officer" of the United States. An "investigative or law enforcement officer" was defined as "...any officer of the United States who is empowered by law to execute searches, to seize evidence, or to make arrests for violations of Federal law.