References - Civil Claims
Annas GJ. Breast cancer screening in older women: Law and patient rights. J Gerontol. 1992;47 (special issue):121–125.
Baldwin LM, Hart LG, Lloyd M, Fordyce M, Rosenblatt RA. Defensive medicine and obstetrics. JAMA. 1995;274:1606– 1610.
Berlin L. Standard of care. AJR. 1998;170:275–278.
Bovbjerg RR, Dubay LC, Kenney GM, Norton SA. Defensive medicine and tort reform: new evidence in an old bottle. J Health Polit Policy Law. 1996;21:267–288.
Burroughs CE. The use of practice guidelines in Wisconsin for liability protection. Wis Med J. 1994;93:69–75.
Cantrill SV. Clinical standards. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1992;10:507–522.
Corrigan J, Wagner J, Wolfe L, Klingman D, Polishuk P. Medical malpractice reform and defensive medicine. Cancer Invest. 1996;14:277–284.
Daly M. Attacking defensive medicine through the utilization of practice parameters: panacea or placebo for the medical care reform movement? J Leg Med. 1995;16:101–132.
Fish R, Ehrhardt M. The standard of care. J Emerg Med. 1994;12:545–552.
Ginsburg WH Jr. When does a guideline become a standard? The New American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines give us a clue. Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22:1891–1896.
Hirshfeld EB. From the Office of the General Counsel: should practice parameters be the standard of care in malpractice litigation? JAMA. 1991;266:2886–2891.
Jacobson PD, Rosenquist CJ. The use of low-osmolar contrast agents: technological change and defensive medicine. J Health Polit Policy Law. 1996;21:243–266.
Jerrold L. Litigation, legislation, and ethics: errors of judgment and the standard of care. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1997;112:694–695.
Kapp MB. Informed consent to defensive medicine: letting the patient decide. Pharos. 1993;56:12–14.
King JY. Practice guidelines & medical malpractice litigation. Med Law. 1997;16:29–39.
Kinney ED. Malpractice reform in the 1990s: past disappointments, future success? J Health Polit Policy Law. 1995;20:99–135.
Klingman D, Localio AR, Sugarman J, et al. Measuring defensive medicine using clinical scenario surveys. J Health Polit Policy Law. 1996;21:185–217.
Kravitz RL, Rolph JE, Petersen L. Omission-related malpractice claims and the limits of defensive medicine. Med Care Res Rev. 1997;54:456–471.
Meadow W, Lantos J. A proactive, data-based determination of the standard of medical care in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 1998;101:E6.
Meadow W, Lantos JD. Expert testimony, legal reasoning, and justice: the case for adopting a data-based standard of care in allegations of medical negligence in the NICU. Clin Perinatol. 1996;23:583–595.
Meadow WL, Lantos J, Tanz RR, Mendez D, Unger R, Wallskog P. Ought ‘standard care’ be the ‘standard of care’? A study of the time to administration of antibiotics in children with meningitis. Am J Dis Child. 1993;147:40–44.
Miller FH. The legal ramifications of the NCCN practice guidelines. Oncology (Huntingt). 1996;10(suppl 11):35–39.
Murphy RN. Legal and practical impact of clinical practice guidelines on nursing and medical practice. Nurse Pract. 1997;22:138, 147–148.
Murphy RN. Legal and practical impact of clinical practice guidelines on nursing and medical practice. Adv Wound Care. 1996;9:31–34.
Noble A, Brennan TA, Hyams AL. Snyder v. American Association of Blood Banks: a re- examination of liability for medical practice guideline promulgators. J Eval Clin Pract. 1998;4:49–62.
Pauker SG, Pauker SP. Expected-utility perspectives on defensive testing: torts, tradeoffs, and thresholds—is defensive medicine defensible? Med Decis Making. 1998;18:29–31.
Summerton N. Positive and negative factors in defensive medicine: a questionnaire study of general practitioners. BMJ. 1995;310(6971):27–29.
Taragin MI, Willett LR, Wilczek AP, Trout R, Carson JL. The influence of standard of care and severity of injury on the resolution of medical malpractice claims. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:780–784.
Tingle J. Legal implications of standard setting in nursing. Br J Nurs. 1992;1:728–731.
Tussing AD, Wojtowycz MA. Malpractice, defensive medicine, and obstetric behavior. Med Care. 1997;35:172–191.
*Source: This section adapted from E.P. Richards, Living with Uncertainty: Information Theory and Critical Care Decision Making, Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, Vol. 5, pp. 91–92, © 1990 E.P. Richards and E.P. Richards and C.W. Walter, How Effective Safety Devices Lead to Secondary Litigation, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 66–68, © 1991 E.P. Richards.