It is Medicare/Medicaid fraud if the patient is billed for the student’s or resident’s services. Medical schools have paid substantial fines for billing Medicare for resident and student care, and the physicians who signed as providing the care could have been criminally prosecuted. All patients should be made aware of the status of all the people involved in their care and the identity of their attending physician. Federal programs and most state and private third-party payers will not pay for any service performed by a student or a physician in a training program. Payment can be expected if a student or resident performs the activity under the direct supervision of a licensed physician. If a medical student dictates a history and physical on a patient who is being admitted to the hospital and the attending physician cosigns this dictation and adds his or her own notes after doing a history and physical, the physician may bill for the service. A physician who cosigns the dictation without doing the work is not entitled to payment for a service he or she did not perform. The physician also may violate the terms of his or her hospital privileges or the laws on delegation of medical authority. Physicians must understand that every claim that is submitted to Medicare or Medicaid with their names on it implies that the physician personally ensures that every aspect of the bill and the care rendered is proper.