|||In the Supreme Court of Georgia
|||October 2, 2000
|||KING V. THE STATE.
|||The opinion of the court was delivered by: Carley, Justice.
|||Rebecca King was involved in a single-car collision. Emergency personnel
found her in a semiconscious condition and transported her to the hospital
before any investigating officer arrived on the scene. Because of the seriousness
of her injuries, Ms. King was treated in accordance with the hospital's
trauma protocol, which included subjecting her to blood-alcohol testing.
This was for the purpose of medical diagnosis and treatment only. Ms. King
neither consented to the test nor was she under arrest at the time it was
administered. The test results indicated a blood-alcohol concentration of
.15. Approximately one hour later, the investigating officer arrived at
the hospital and, pursuant to OCGA § 40-6-392, requested a State-administered
test to determine Ms. King's blood-alcohol content. Based upon the results
of this test, she was charged with several counts of driving under the influence,
including a less safe driver violation. OCGA § 40-6-391 (a) (1).
|||The trial court granted Ms. King's pre-trial motion to suppress the results
of the State-administered blood test, because of the failure to prove the
identity and qualifications of the individual who had drawn the blood. See
Peek v. State, 272 Ga.169 (527 SE2d 552) (2000). The prosecution then obtained
the issuance of a subpoena to the hospital, seeking the production of Ms.
King's medical records for the purpose of gathering evidence to use against
her in the criminal proceeding. The hospital turned the records over to
the State, without the knowledge or consent of Ms. King or her counsel.
Upon learning of this development, Ms. King filed a motion to quash the
subpoena and a motion in limine to prevent the use of her own personal medical
records at the trial. In her motions, she raised constitutional challenges
to the State's use of a subpoena to obtain her records, including an assertion
of a violation of her right to privacy under Article I, Section I, Paragraph
I of the Georgia Constitution of 1983. The trial court denied the motions,
and the blood-alcohol results and the testimony of the supervisor of the
hospital's hematology laboratory were admitted at trial over Ms. King's
objections. The jury found her guilty of driving under the influence of
alcohol to the extent that it was less safe for her to drive. Ms. King appeals
from the judgment of conviction and sentence entered on that guilty verdict.
|||1. In Pavesich v. New England Life Ins. Co., 122 Ga. 190, 197 (50 SE 68)
(1905), "this Court expressly recognized that Georgia citizens have
a `liberty of privacy' guaranteed by the Georgia constitutional provision
which declares that no person shall be deprived of liberty except by due
process of law. [Cit.]" Powell v. State, 270 Ga. 327, 329 (3) (510
SE2d 18) (1998). This right of privacy guaranteed by the Georgia Constitution
is far more extensive than that protected by the Constitution of the United
States. Powell v. State, supra at 330 (3). In this state, privacy is considered
a fundamental constitutional right and is "recognized as having a value
so essential to individual liberty in our society that [its] infringement
merits careful scrutiny by the courts." Ambles v. State, 259 Ga. 406,
408 (2) (b) (383 SE2d 555) (1989). It is against this background that we
must consider Ms. King's objection to the State's use of the subpoena to
gain possession of her medical records.
|||While it is true that Georgia does not recognize a common-law or statutory
physician-patient privilege, we deal here with the constitutional right
of privacy. The initial inquiry is, therefore, whether Ms. King's medical
records are within the ambit of protection provided by that more fundamental
right. There is no specific authority on this issue. As a general proposition,
however, the right of privacy
|||has its foundation in the instincts of nature. It is recognized intuitively,
consciousness being the witness that can be called to establish its existence.
Any person whose intellect is in a normal condition recognizes at once that
as to each individual member of society there are matters private and there
are matters public so far as the individual are concerned. Each individual
as instinctively resents any encroachment by the public upon his rights
which are of a private nature as he does the withdrawal of those of his
rights which are of a public nature. A right of privacy in matters purely
private is therefore derived from natural law. Pavesich v. New England Life
Ins. Co., supra at 194.
|||Applying this definition, a patient's medical information, as reflected
in the records maintained by his or her medical providers, is certainly
a matter which a reasonable person would consider to be private. "We
believe that medical records are entitled to more privacy than bank records
and phone records." Thurman v. State, 861 SW2d 96, 98 (Tex. App. 1993).
Compare United States v. Miller, 425 U.S. 435 (96 SC 1619, 48 LEd2d 71)
(1976) (bank records). Even if the medical provider is the technical "owner"
of the actual records, the patient nevertheless has a reasonable expectation
of privacy in the information contained therein, since that data reflects
the physical state of his or her body. Unless "demanded by the law
of the land[,] ... the body of a person can not be put on exhibition at
any time or at any place without his consent." Pavesich v. New England
Life Ins. Co., supra at 196. Medical records are within the right of privacy
afforded by the Federal Constitution. United States v. Westinghouse Elec.
Corp., 638 F2d 570, 577 (IV) (3d Cir. 1980). Because Georgia recognizes
an even broader concept of privacy, the personal medical records of this
state's citizens clearly are protected by that right as guaranteed by our
|||Since Ms. King's medical records are protected by the constitutional right
of privacy, they cannot be disclosed without her consent unless their production
is required by the law of Georgia. In that regard, the prosecution can justify
its invasion of Ms. King's privacy only by showing that it acted pursuant
to a statute which effectuates a compelling state interest and which is
narrowly tailored to promote only that interest. Powell v. State, supra
at 333 (3). The State cites OCGA § 24-9-40 (a) as the sole authority for
subpoenaing Ms. King's medical records. That statute provides, in relevant
|||[n]o physician ... and no hospital or health care facility ... shall be
required to release any medical information concerning a patient except
... on appropriate court order or subpoena ... provided, further, that the
privilege shall be waived to the extent that the patient places his care
and treatment or the nature and extent of his injuries at issue in any civil
or criminal proceeding.
|||There is some doubt whether this enactment can even be construed as affirmative
authority for a litigant to subpoena the medical reports of an opposing
party who has not waived the privilege otherwise attaching to those records.
Arguably, the statute provides only a protective shield to those health
care providers who release a patient's medical records pursuant to an "appropriate
court order or subpoena ...." The question of what constitutes an "appropriate"
subpoena is nowhere addressed in the statute, and it does not confer express
authority on the State or another party to file a subpoena seeking a patient's
|||Despite this lack of specificity, the State urges that OCGA § 24-9- 40
(a) should be construed as implicit statutory authorization for issuance
of a subpoena as an investigative tool in criminal cases. Clearly, law enforcement
and public safety are compelling and legitimate state purposes. See Barnett
v. State, 270 Ga. 472 (510 SE2d 527) (1999). However, the State is not entitled
to exercise indiscriminate subpoena power as an investigative substitute
for procedural devices otherwise available to it in the criminal context,
such as a search warrant. Johnson v. State, 156 Ga. App. 496 (274 SE2d 837)
(1980) (State cannot use a notice to produce as a procedural substitute
for a search warrant). The constitutional right of persons to be secure
in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches
and seizures is itself based upon the concept of the right of privacy. Powell
v. State, supra at 330 (3), fn. 2.
|||[T]he law on the subject of unreasonable searches can not be based upon
any other principle than the right of a person to be secure from invasion
by the public into matters of a private nature which can only be properly
termed his right of privacy. Pavesich v. New England Life Ins. Co., supra
|||Just as the authority to conduct a search and seizure is circumscribed
by the right of privacy, so too must the prosecution's authority to obtain
evidence against a criminal defendant by means of a subpoena be limited.
Before the State is authorized to exercise its police power, it must appear
"`that the means are reasonably necessary for the accomplishment of
the purpose, and not unduly oppressive upon the individuals.' [Cit.]"
(Emphasis supplied.) Powell v. State, supra at 334 (3). Thus, any use by
the State of a subpoena in ostensible effectuation of the compelling interest
of enforcement of the criminal laws must be narrowly tailored to insure
that the equally compelling constitutional right of privacy is not unreasonably
|||Unlike the Fourth Amendment which requires that the State have probable
cause prior to the seizure of an accused or his property, OCGA § 24-9-40
(a) does not contain any express limits on the use of a subpoena to obtain
a defendant's medical records for possible introduction as evidence in a
criminal proceeding. Thus, the State's interpretation of this statute would
authorize the disclosure of confidential information by means of a subpoena
issued upon the mere filing of an indictment or accusation, if not before.
In this particular case, it also would permit the prosecution to circumvent
the procedural safeguards of the implied consent statute and to obtain indirectly
what it did not properly obtain directly. Although such unlimited use of
the subpoena power in a criminal case might well serve the State interest
of law enforcement, it cannot be said to do so in a "reasonable"
manner if it violates the accused's constitutional right of privacy. Not
only must the State's interference with that right be reasonably necessary
for law enforcement purposes, such an interference must also avoid subjecting
Georgia citizens to undue oppressiveness. Powell v. State, supra at 334
(3). Permitting the State unlimited access to medical records for the purposes
of prosecuting the patient would have the highly oppressive effect of chilling
the decision of any and all Georgians to seek medical treatment.
|||Moreover, the terms of OCGA § 24-9-40 (a) do not provide Ms. King with
an opportunity to contest the validity of the subpoena before the disclosure
of her medical records to the prosecution. "Due process of law is denied
when an arm of the state acts directly against an individual's property
and deprives him of it without notice or an opportunity to be heard."
Reinertsen v. Porter, 242 Ga. 624, 627 (1) (250 SE2d 475) (1978). "Procedural
due process means notice and an opportunity ... to be heard." Jackson
v. Spalding County, 265 Ga. 792, 794 (4) (462 SE2d 361) (1995). In her motions
to quash and in limine, Ms. King was allowed to object to the admission
of her medical records into evidence at trial. However, the constitutional
right of privacy protects the initial unauthorized disclosure of Ms. King's
medical records to anyone, including the prosecutor, and any subsequent
opportunity to contest the admissibility of the private information does
not constitute a sufficient procedural safeguard against any initial unauthorized
dissemination thereof. Post-deprivation remedies are never favored and are
constitutionally inadequate unless predeprivation remedies are unavailable
or impractical. Novak v. Cobb County- Kennestone Hosp. Auth., 849 FSupp
1559, 1568 (III) (C) (N.D. Ga. 1994), aff'd 74 F3d 1173 (11th Cir. 1996).
Clearly, an opportunity to object to the admissibility of medical records
already in the possession of the prosecution does not protect against unauthorized
disclosure, and the State makes no contention that a predisclosure opportunity
to contest the validity of a subpoena of an accused's medical records is
impractical. Thus, as envisioned by the State, its so-called "subpoena
exception" violates the due process rights of an accused. "Due
process of the law must obtain as a matter of right and not merely by happenstance,
or by the grace of judicial or other authorities." Holland Furnace
Co. v. Willis, 222 Ga. 156, 161 (2) (149 SE2d 93) (1966), overruled on other
grounds, Collins v. Williams, 237 Ga. 576, 577 (229 SE2d 388) (1976). It
is immaterial that Ms. King did not denominate her attack below as a due
process challenge which was separate and distinct from her objection on
privacy grounds. Because the right of privacy is itself premised upon the
due process clause of our constitution, that concept is necessarily subsumed
into a constitutional challenge on privacy grounds. See Powell v. State,
supra at 329 (3); Pavesich v. New England Life Ins. Co, supra at 197. Thus,
the privacy issue having been raised in the trial court, the principles
of due process are applicable on appeal.
|||"Whenever possible, a statute must be construed so as to affirm its
constitutionality, and to uphold the due process rights of affected parties."
(Emphasis supplied.) Hayek v. State, 269 Ga. 728, 731 (4) (506 SE2d 372)
(1998). It is impossible, however, to construe OCGA § 24-9-40 (a), as it
is presently worded, as a constitutionally viable authorization for the
State in this case to subpoena Ms. King's medical records and also as providing
the due process rights to which she is entitled. That statute does not contain
any express provisions to insure that the constitutional right of privacy
in medical records is not unreasonably impacted by the State's use of a
subpoena in criminal cases. Compare OCGA § 9-11-34 (c) (2) (notice and opportunity
to object in civil cases). Thus, the issuance of a subpoena for Ms. King's
medical records could not be "appropriate" as otherwise required
by OCGA § 24-9-40 (a), because such a subpoena would result in a violation
of her constitutional right to privacy arising from the due process clause
of this state's constitution. Accordingly, we reject that interpretation
of the statute.
|||We do not hold that a Georgia citizen's constitutional right of privacy
in medical records is absolute or that OCGA § 24-9-40 (a) is unconstitutional
on its face. As that enactment provides, the right to privacy can be waived
in writing or "to the extent that the patient places his care and treatment
or the nature and extent of his injuries at issue in any civil or criminal
proceeding." Our holding is simply that, in the absence of waiver and
without notice to the accused or an opportunity to object, it is not "appropriate"
under that statute for the State in a criminal case to subpoena a defendant's
own personal medical records which are then in the possession of a physician,
hospital or health care facility. Compare, e.g., OCGA § 19-7-5, dealing
with reporting requirements when a child is the suspected victim of abuse.
We do not address the constitutionality of OCGA § 24-9-40 (a) in other circumstances
or in accordance with other possible constructions which are not before
us. Thus, we do not determine whether the State can obtain and use a criminal
defendant's medical records which are not in the possession of a physician,
hospital or health care facility and which, thus, may in extraordinary circumstances
be reachable other than by subpoena. Moreover, our decision should not be
construed as applicable to the prosecution's use of any procedural device
other than an ex parte subpoena to obtain an accused's medical records.
Our narrow holding is that OCGA § 24-9-40 (a) cannot be constitutionally
applied in this criminal case, because Ms. King did not have notice and
an opportunity to object to the State's subpoena of her medical records
in which she had not waived her right of privacy. Because to hold otherwise
would result in a violation of the accused's due process rights, we must
reverse the trial court's denial of Ms. King's motion to quash the State's
|||2. With the exclusion of Ms. King's medical records from evidence, we
cannot say that the remaining evidence was sufficient to enable a rational
trier of fact to find her guilty of violating OCGA § 40-6-391 (a) (1). Jackson
v. Virginia, 443 U.S. 307 (99 SC 2781, 61 LE2d 560) (1979).
|||All the Justices concur.
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