Adjudication, Formal agency action agency review of alj credibility cross examination v rebuttal combination of functions, deciding and investigating discretion findings full and fair hearing requirement mental processes of decider mitigation order outside consultants, advisors prehearing conference procedure record right to representation sanction scope of review Adjudication, Informal agency action hearing judicial review procedure record Advice, Information agency action attorney general opinion declaratory order, agency declaratory order, court estoppel, res judicata interpretative rule ADR Agency Head combination of functions ex parte contact, adjudication personal decision ALJ alj decision authority central panel disqualification ex parte communication full and fair hearing prehearing conference review by agency Bias bias topics bias, alj v. agency doctrine of necessity ex parte contact separation of functions specificity, substantial prejudice Decisionmaking agency files agency review alj, adjudication burden of proof change of policy, consistency findings influence, lobbying, politics interpretation of statutory language nonacquiescence public participation record settlement Discretion discretion permitted Due Process balancing test notice and opportunity to respond property, liberty interests state action timing of hearing Emergency Decisionmaking action first, review later Evidence agency rules Cross examination, credibility evaluation of evidence ex parte communication explanation hearsay legislative v. adjudicative facts official notice rebuttal evidence trade secrets Hearing Alternatives and Types apa hearings due process hearings paper or oral site visit telephone hearing testing Investigation agency action Judicial Review abuse of discretion, reasonableness delegation of authority exhaustion facts finality general factors injunction, stay limitation period organic statute petition for reconsideration power of court to remand, reverse, etc. presumptions questions on review record residuum rule ripeness role of judicial review scope of review, various tests standing unreviewability Rulemaking basis and purpose statement follow own rules judicial review notice petition for rulemaking promulgation, nonpromulgation, and recision regulatory analysis types of rules