Climate Change Project

Table of Contents



National Security Law

Chapter 11 - Collective Self-Defense

What did the world's nations promise in Article 2(4) of the U.N. Charter?

What was the League of Nations?

How well did it work?

What is the political history of the UN?

How was it regarded by conservatives before the Gulf War?

Review the Articles

What would an Article 43 agreement create?

Why has there never been an Article 43 agreement?

How does this constrain UN peace-keeping actions?

How does Article 51 allow collective self-defense outside of UN control?

Why doesn't the UN Charter ban anything but UN-mediated actions?

What does the UN have to do restore its authority?

What is the sequence of actions that leads to a UN Resolution authorizing force?

How does the voting work on the Security Council?

How is the membership determined?

How does this act as a brake on the UN Resolutions interfering with US sovereignty?

When was the United Nations Participation Act passed?

What does the United Nations Participation Act direct the president to do?

What is the limitation on presidential action under Article 43?

What is the President allowed to do under Article 42 without consulting with Congress?

What about non-military aid?

Can Congress cut off funding for troops loaned to the UN?

Is this any different from other troop actions?

What if the UN comes up with money to support them?

What if the President comes up with money to support them when he wants to act without congressional mandate?

Are UN actions like Korea and the Gulf War, wars?

What is a police action?

Does this have any meaning in customary international law?

What about as regards congressional powers?

Could Congress also declare war in a UN Action?

What would this mean?

Korean Police Action - 292

What is the background on Korea?

Who got North Korea?

Why not China?

Who was put in power in North Korea?

What happened in 1949?

China and Russia are allies but not a united front

What happens on June 25, 1950?

What was the role of the UN?

Why is this a classic UN action?

Why didn't the Soviet Union veto the UN actions?

Did Truman ask for permission from Congress?


What did Truman first?

How do we know Congress supported the war?

3 years and more than 33,000 US soldiers killed

Continued troop presence

How did Korea get so crazy?

What happened as the cold war wound down?

First Gulf War

What made Iraq our ally in the 1980s?

Why do some folks think this played into the invasion of Kuwait?

How did the invasion of Kuwait affect the US?

How many troops did Iraq put in Kuwait?

How big is Kuwait?

What did we think was the real threat?

What did Resolution 660 say?

Resolution 661?

What did Bush I do?

Why did he not need congressional permission for this?

Did Bush I comply with the WPR?

Was there a joint resolution supporting the buildup?

What did the appropriations bills say?

What did Resolution 678 provide?

What did Bush I say about asking Congress for permission to invade Kuwait?

What did he ask for and why?

Did he get the resolution?

What was the vote?

What did it require he show before moving on Iraq?

When did he tell Congress this was satisfied, and what came next?

In retrospect, did Bush I do what he should have done to authorize the war?

Did Bush II do as much?

Did his resolution get more votes?

Stay tuned for the next chapter


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