The ADA bifurcates the hiring process into the preoffer stage and the postoffer
stage when there has been an offer of employment. At the preoffer stage, with
certain exceptions for mandated affirmative action recordkeeping, “It is
unlawful for a covered entity to conduct a medical examination of an applicant
or to make inquiries as to whether an applicant is an individual with a disability
or as to the nature or severity of such disability” (sec. 1630.13(a)).
The employer may ask the applicant if he or she is able to do the job and may
require job-oriented skills tests. The employer must provide any reasonable
accommodations that the applicant requires to complete these tests.