1. In the treatment of the sick person the doctor must be free to use a new
therapeutic measure if in his judgment it offers hope of saving life, re-
establishing health, or alleviating suffering. If at all possible, consistent with
patient psychology, the doctor should obtain the patient’s freely given consent
after the patient has been given a full explanation. In case of legal incapacity
consent should also be procured from the legal guardian; in case of physical
incapacity the permission of the legal guardian replaces that of the patient.
2. The doctor can combine clinical research with professional care, the objective
being the acquisition of new medical knowledge, only to the extent that
clinical research is justified by its therapeutic value for the patient.