Presidential Decision Directive-62
The following is an unclassified abstract derived from Presidential Decision
Directive-62 (PDD-62), "Protection Against Unconventional Threats to the
Homeland and Americans Overseas," dated May 22, 1998.
The full text of PDD-62 is a CLASSIFIED document. State and local officials
should understand that PDD-62 reaffirms PDD-39, "United States Policy on
Counterterrorism," signed June 21, 1995. As such, the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI) will continue to serve as the Lead Federal Agency for "crisis
management" and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will continue
to serve as the Lead Federal Agency for "consequence management."
It is increasingly likely that terrorist groups, or individuals with criminal
intent, may use unconventional methods to disrupt the Nation's critical infrastructure
or use weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against our citizens.
As these types of threats mature, it is necessary to prepare to deter them,
prevent them from occurring, or, if need be, limit the damage to a minimum.
Success is dependent upon possessing the capability for an integrated response,
and in the case of critical infrastructure protection, having public/private
2. Present Achievements and Current Challenges
- An increased rate of apprehensions and convictions;
- An increase in counterterrorism legislative authorities;
- An increase in the funding for consequence management planning;
- An increase in the importance of terrorism on the diplomatic agenda;
- Growth of assistance to, and cooperation with, other democracies in combating
- Improving and expanding a professionally trained interagency cadre.
- Terrorist groups may choose asymmetrical attacks on our domestic and international
vulnerabilities, through the use of WMD and/or cyber warfare;
- Terrorist groups possess the knowledge, skills, and abilities to use WMD;
- Former "cold war" civil defense programs have been downsized or
dismantled, and cities are not prepared to deal with a large-scale event;
- Improvements in technology will make it difficult for law enforcement agencies
to detect and prevent terrorist acts; and
- The Nation's critical infrastructure relies heavily on the use of computers,
which are prone to cyber attacks.
3. Consequences Management
In the event of a terrorism incident, the Federal Government will respond
rapidly, working with State and local governments, to restore order and deliver
emergency assistance. FEMA, the Lead Federal Agency for consequence management,
is responsible for preparing for and responding to the consequences of a WMD
incident with participation of other departments and agencies including the
Public Health Service (PHS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Department
of Energy (DOE), as necessary. The Department of Justice (DOJ), through the
FBI, is the Lead Federal Agency for crisis management and operational response
to a weapon of mass destruction incident.
Domestically, key Federal agencies and Departments, through interagency efforts,
will continue training and providing equipment to first responders to prepare
them for response to WMD incidents. Emphasis will be placed on preparing those
responders in the largest 120 cities.
The Department of Defense, in coordination with other Federal Departments
and agencies, will provide training to metropolitan first responders and will
maintain trained military units to assist State and local responders. One
example is the National Guard concept of initially forming 10 Rapid Assessment
and Initial Detection (RAID) teams in each FEMA Region. These teams are designed
to provide rapid response to a WMD incident and assist State and local responders.
PHS, in the Department of Health and Human Services, is the Lead Federal Agency
in planning and preparing for response to WMD-related medical emergencies.
PHS will continue supporting State and local governments in developing Metropolitan
Medical Strike Teams; maintaining the National Disaster Medical System; and,
in conjunction with the Department of Veterans Affairs, stockpiling antidotes
and pharmaceuticals in the event of a WMD incident.
DOJ, in coordination with FEMA, will provide equipment to State and local
5. Critical Infrastructure
It is imperative that the United States be adequately prepared to deal with
attacks on critical infrastructure and cyber systems. As such, the President
reviewed the recommendations of the Presidential Commission on Critical Infrastructure
Protection and has signed PDD-63, entitled Protecting America's Critical Infrastructures
(PDD-63 is For Official Use Only). A white paper, entitled "The Clinton
Administration's Policy on Critical Infrastructure Protection: Presidential
Decision Directive-63," is available at www.whitehouse.gov/WH/EOP/NSC/htm/NSCSDoo3.html.
This white paper outlines the Administration's program to deal with threats
to our Nation's critical infrastructure.
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